Aquarius/SMAP Optimum Interpolation Maps: SSS Anomaly

The sea surface salinity (SSS) optimum interpolation (OI) product combines observations from NASA's Aquarius/SAC-D and Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) satellite missions into a continuous and consistent multi-satellite SSS data record. The dataset covers the period from September 2011 to August 2021.

Thanks to this long, continuous data record, it is possible to compute anomaly data relative to the OI SSS product-based monthly climatology. Climatology data are computed over a 9-year period from September 2011 to August 2021 (view climatology maps).

The beginning segment, from September 2011 to June 2015, utilizes data from the Aquarius satellite and is based on OI analysis (OI SSS; Melnichenko et al., 2016). The analysis is produced on a 0.25-degree grid at a 4-day interval and uses a dedicated bias-correction algorithm to correct the satellite retrievals for large-scale biases with respect to in-situ data. The time series is continued with the SMAP satellite-based SSS data provided by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS). SMAP SSS fields are produced from Level-2 (swath) data using the OI algorithm. To ensure consistency and continuity in the data record, SMAP SSS fields are further adjusted using a set of optimally designed spatial filters to reduce small-scale noise and, at the same time, to ensure that the data record is consistent across the scales. For the overlap period (April-May 2015), the data from the two satellites are averaged together to ensure a smooth transition from one dataset to another. Measurements from the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite are used to fill the gap in SMAP observations during June-July 2019, when the SMAP satellite was in a safe mode and did not deliver scientific data. View salinity maps.

Reference
Melnichenko, O., P. Hacker., N. Maximenko, G. Lagerloef, and J. Potemra (2016), Optimum interpolation analysis of Aquarius sea surface salinity, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, 602-616, doi:10.1002/2015JC011343.
Resources
Anomaly Data Access (International Pacific Research Center)

Click on the images (below) for a closer view. From there, you can click the left/right arrows to move from month to month. After you've selected a specific map, you can click on the caption to view salinity data for that month/year. Can't see the image captions? Try resizing your browser window to allow toggling between anomaly and SSS maps.

Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2021.
August 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2021.
July 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2021.
June 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2021.
May 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2021.
April 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2021.
March 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2021.
February 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2021.
January 2021
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2020.
December 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2020.
November 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2020.
October 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2020.
September 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2020.
August 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2020.
July 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2020.
June 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2020.
May 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2020.
April 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2020.
March 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2020.
February 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2020.
January 2020
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2019.
December 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2019.
November 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2019.
October 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2019.
September 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2019.
August 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2019.
July 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2019.
June 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2019.
May 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2019.
April 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2019.
March 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2019.
February 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2019.
January 2019
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2018.
December 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2018.
November 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2018.
October 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2018.
September 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2018.
August 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2018.
July 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2018.
June 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2018.
May 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2018.
April 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2018.
March 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2018.
February 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2018.
January 2018
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2017.
December 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2017.
November 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2017.
October 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2017.
September 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2017.
August 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2017.
July 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2017.
June 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2017.
May 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2017.
April 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2017.
March 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2017.
February 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2017.
January 2017
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2016.
December 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2016.
November 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2016.
October 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2016.
September 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2016.
August 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2016.
July 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2016.
June 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2016.
May 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2016.
April 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2016.
March 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2016.
February 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2016.
January 2016
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2015.
December 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2015.
November 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2015.
October 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2015.
September 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2015.
August 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2015.
July 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2015.
June 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2015.
May 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2015.
April 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2015.
March 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2015.
February 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2015.
January 2015
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2014.
December 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2014.
November 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2014.
October 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2014.
September 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2014.
August 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2014.
July 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2014.
June 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2014.
May 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2014.
April 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2014.
March 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2014.
February 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2014.
January 2014
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2013.
December 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2013.
November 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2013.
October 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2013.
September 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2013.
August 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2013.
July 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2013.
June 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2013.
May 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2013.
April 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2013.
March 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2013.
February 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2013.
January 2013
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2012.
December 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2012.
November 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2012.
October 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2012.
September 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, August 2012.
August 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, July 2012.
July 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, June 2012.
June 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, May 2012.
May 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, April 2012.
April 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, March 2012.
March 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, February 2012.
February 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, January 2012.
January 2012
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, December 2011.
December 2011
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, November 2011.
November 2011
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, October 2011.
October 2011
Global map of monthly sea surface salinity, September 2011.
September 2011