Aquarius Maps: Brightness Temperature at High Latitudes

  • Brightness temperature, January 2-9, 2014

    January 2-9, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 9-16, 2014

    January 9-16, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 16-23, 2014

    January 16-23, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 23-30, 2014

    January 23-30, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 30 - February 6, 2014

    January 30 - February 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 6-13, 2014

    February 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 13-20, 2014

    February 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 20-27, 2014

    February 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 27 - March 6, 2014

    February 27 - March 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 6-13, 2014

    March 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 13-20, 2014

    March 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 20-27, 2014

    March 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 27 - April 3, 2014

    March 27 - April 3, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 3-10, 2014

    April 3-10, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 10-17, 2014

    April 10-17, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 17-24, 2014

    April 17-24, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 24 - May 1, 2014

    April 24 - May 1, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 1-8, 2014

    May 1-8, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 8-15, 2014

    May 8-15, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 15-22, 2014

    May 15-22, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 22-29, 2014

    May 22-29, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 29 - June 5, 2014

    May 29 - June 5, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 5-12, 2014

    June 5-12, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 12-19, 2014

    June 12-19, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 19-26, 2014

    June 19-26, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 26 - July 3, 2014

    June 26 - July 3, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 3-10, 2014

    July 3-10, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 10-17, 2014

    July 10-17, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 17-24, 2014

    July 17-24, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 24-31, 2014

    July 24-31, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 31 - August 7, 2014

    July 31 - August 7, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 7-14, 2014

    August 7-14, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 14-21, 2014

    August 14-21, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 21-28, 2014

    August 21-28, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 28 - September 4, 2014

    August 28 - September 4, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 4-11, 2014

    September 4-11, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 11-18, 2014

    September 11-18, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 18-25, 2014

    September 18-25, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 25 - October 2, 2014

    September 25 - October 2, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 2-9, 2014

    October 2-9, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 9-16, 2014

    October 9-16, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 16-23, 2014

    October 16-23, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 23-30, 2014

    October 23-30, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 30 - November 6, 2014

    October 30 - November 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 6-13, 2014

    November 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 13-20, 2014

    November 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 20-27, 2014

    November 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 27 - December 4, 2014

    November 27 - December 4, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 4-11, 2014

    December 4-11, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 11-18, 2014

    December 11-18, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 18-25, 2014

    December 18-25, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 25, 2014 - January 1, 2015

    December 25, 2014 - January 1, 2015

  • Credit
  • Credit
Slideshow: 2014 brightness temperature maps of the Northern Hemisphere ocean (hover over images to pause the slideshow).

This page contains two sets of weekly gridded maps showing the Aquarius (L-band, about 1.4 GHz) brightness temperature (TB) measurements recorded at vertical polarization in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (using beam 1) and Southern Hemisphere (using beam 3). These beams point toward the Earth with different angles, but they were considered because they offer the largest spatial coverage of each polar region. Microwave brightness temperatures are expressed in Kelvin (K). Blue colors represent low TBs, whereas red colors represent high TBs. The date shown on the images (below) is the first day of that weekly measurement.

Over the polar region there is a large range of TBs. Where the ocean is not covered by sea ice, TBs are low (about 100 K). In contrast, where the ocean is covered by sea ice higher TBs are measured (about 170 to 270 K). The temporal and spatial distribution of the TBs over sea ice depends on the sea ice properties (e.g., concentration, thickness). Measurements over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets also vary according to the snow and ice properties (e.g. temperature, accumulation, presence of melting snow) but they are more stable than over sea ice, which drifts with the oceanic currents.

Scientists studying the Earth's cryosphere (e.g., ice sheet, sea ice, and permafrost) are motivated to use the Aquarius TB measurements because they contain new information about snow and ice properties. Over the ice sheets, Aquarius' measurements can provide us with information from hundreds of meters below the surface, hence centuries old ice in some places. Understanding these data could lead to new cryospheric applications such as the monitoring of long-term ice temperature changes, and snow accumulation over the ice sheets. Similar new applications exist for sea ice, and permafrost.

The data presented are a weekly gridded average of the swath data distributed by NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and provided by Ludovic Brucker (1,2) and Emmanuel Dinnat (1,3).

Aquarius Level-3 weekly polar-gridded data sets can be downloaded from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

(1) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Cryospheric Sciences Lab, Greenbelt MD, USA
(2) Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt MD, USA
(3) Chapman University, Orange CA, USA

Aquarius Retrieved Brightness Temperature in the Northern High-Latitude Ocean

In the Northern Hemisphere, the sea-ice cover typically reaches a maximum extent in March, and a minimum extent in September. Beginning in June and extending through the months of July, August, and September, there are large areas of the central Arctic that have ice-free waters (blue color on the map). In October, there is an increase in the extent of the sea-ice cover, and this increase continues until the following March (red color replacing blue and green colors on the map).


Maps By Year:  2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 25, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 18, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 11, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 4, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 30, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 23, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 16, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 9, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 2, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 25, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 18, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 11, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 4, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 28, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 21, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 14, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 7, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 31, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 24, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 17, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 10, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 3, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 26, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 19, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 12, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 5, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 29, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 22, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 15, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 8, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 1, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 24, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 17, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 10, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 3, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 30, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 23, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 16, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 9, 2014
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 2, 2014

Aquarius Retrieved Brightness Temperature in the Southern High-Latitude Ocean

  • Brightness temperature, January 2-9, 2014

    January 2-9, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 9-16, 2014

    January 9-16, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 16-23, 2014

    January 16-23, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 23-30, 2014

    January 23-30, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, January 30 - February 6, 2014

    January 30 - February 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 6-13, 2014

    February 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 13-20, 2014

    February 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 20-27, 2014

    February 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, February 27 - March 6, 2014

    February 27 - March 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 6-13, 2014

    March 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 13-20, 2014

    March 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 20-27, 2014

    March 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, March 27 - April 3, 2014

    March 27 - April 3, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 3-10, 2014

    April 3-10, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 10-17, 2014

    April 10-17, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 17-24, 2014

    April 17-24, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, April 24 - May 1, 2014

    April 24 - May 1, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 1-8, 2014

    May 1-8, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 8-15, 2014

    May 8-15, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 15-22, 2014

    May 15-22, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 22-29, 2014

    May 22-29, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, May 29 - June 5, 2014

    May 29 - June 5, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 5-12, 2014

    June 5-12, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 12-19, 2014

    June 12-19, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 19-26, 2014

    June 19-26, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, June 26 - July 3, 2014

    June 26 - July 3, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 3-10, 2014

    July 3-10, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 10-17, 2014

    July 10-17, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 17-24, 2014

    July 17-24, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 24-31, 2014

    July 24-31, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, July 31 - August 7, 2014

    July 31 - August 7, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 7-14, 2014

    August 7-14, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 14-21, 2014

    August 14-21, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 21-28, 2014

    August 21-28, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, August 28 - September 4, 2014

    August 28 - September 4, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 4-11, 2014

    September 4-11, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 11-18, 2014

    September 11-18, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 18-25, 2014

    September 18-25, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, September 25 - October 2, 2014

    September 25 - October 2, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 2-9, 2014

    October 2-9, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 9-16, 2014

    October 9-16, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 16-23, 2014

    October 16-23, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 23-30, 2014

    October 23-30, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, October 30 - November 6, 2014

    October 30 - November 6, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 6-13, 2014

    November 6-13, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 13-20, 2014

    November 13-20, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 20-27, 2014

    November 20-27, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, November 27 - December 4, 2014

    November 27 - December 4, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 4-11, 2014

    December 4-11, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 11-18, 2014

    December 11-18, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 18-25, 2014

    December 18-25, 2014

  • Brightness temperature, December 25, 2014 - January 1, 2015

    December 25, 2014 - January 1, 2015

  • Credit
  • Credit
Slideshow: 2014 brightness temperature maps of the Southern Hemisphere ocean (hover over images to pause the slideshow).

In the Southern Hemisphere, the month of minimum sea ice extent is February, whereas the month of maximum extent is October. In general, the Antarctic sea-ice cover exhibits faster seasonal ice extent variations than that monitored in the Northern Hemisphere.


Maps By Year:  2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 25, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 18, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 11, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 4, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 30, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 23, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 16, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 9, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 2, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 25, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 18, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 11, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 4, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 28, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 21, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 14, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 7, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 31, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 24, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 17, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 10, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 3, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 26, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 19, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 12, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 5, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 29, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 22, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 15, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 8, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 1, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 24, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 17, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 10, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 3, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 27, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 20, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 13, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 6, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 30, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 23, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 16, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 9, 2014
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 2, 2014
Publications
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., and Koenig, L.S. (2014a). Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations and Salinity Retrievals Over the Polar Regions - Part 1: Product Description, The Cryosphere, 8, 905-913, doi:10.5194/tc-8-905-2014.
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., and Koenig, L.S. (2014b). Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations and Salinity Retrievals Over the Polar Regions - Part 2: Initial Product Analysis, The Cryosphere, 8, 915-930, doi:10.5194/tc-8-915-2014.
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., Picard, G., and Champollion, N. (2014c). Effect of Snow Surface Metamorphism on Aquarius L-Band Radiometer Observations at Dome C, Antarctica, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52 (11), 1-10, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2014.2312102.