Aquarius Maps: Brightness Temperature at High Latitudes

  • Brightness temperature, January 5-12, 2012

    January 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 12-19, 2012

    January 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 19-26, 2012

    January 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 26 - February 2, 2012

    January 26 - February 2, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 2-9, 2012

    February 2-9, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 9-16, 2012

    February 9-16, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 16-23, 2012

    February 16-23, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 23 - March 1, 2012

    February 23 - March 1, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 1-8, 2012

    March 1-8, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 8-15, 2012

    March 8-15, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 15-22, 2012

    March 15-22, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 22-29, 2012

    March 22-29, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 29 - April 5, 2012

    March 29 - April 5, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 5-12, 2012

    April 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 12-19, 2012

    April 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 19-26, 2012

    April 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 26 - May 3, 2012

    April 26 - May 3, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 3-10, 2012

    May 3-10, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 10-17, 2012

    May 10-17, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 17-24, 2012

    May 17-24, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 24-31, 2012

    May 24-31, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 31 - June 7, 2012

    May 31 - June 7, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 7-14, 2012

    June 7-14, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 14-21, 2012

    June 14-21, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 21-28, 2012

    June 21-28, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 28 - July 5, 2012

    June 28 - July 5, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 5-12, 2012

    July 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 12-19, 2012

    July 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 19-26, 2012

    July 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 26 - August 2, 2012

    July 26 - August 2, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 2-9, 2012

    August 2-9, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 9-16, 2012

    August 9-16, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 16-23, 2012

    August 16-23, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 23 - September 6, 2012

    August 23 - September 6, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 6-13, 2012

    September 6-13, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 13-20, 2012

    September 13-20, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 20-27, 2012

    September 20-27, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 27 - October 4, 2012

    September 27 - October 4, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 4-11, 2012

    October 4-11, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 11-18, 2012

    October 11-18, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 18-25, 2012

    October 18-25, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 25 - November 1, 2012

    October 25 - November 1, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 1-8, 2012

    November 1-8, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 8-15, 2012

    November 8-15, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 15-22, 2012

    November 15-22, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 22-29, 2012

    November 22-29, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 29 - December 6, 2012

    November 29 - December 6, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 6-13, 2012

    December 6-13, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 13-20, 2012

    December 13-20, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 20-27, 2012

    December 20-27, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 27, 2012 - January 3, 2013

    December 27, 2012 - January 3, 2013

  • Credit
  • Credit
Slideshow: 2012 brightness temperature maps of the Northern Hemisphere ocean (hover over images to pause the slideshow).

This page contains two sets of weekly gridded maps showing the Aquarius (L-band, about 1.4 GHz) brightness temperature (TB) measurements recorded at vertical polarization in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (using beam 1) and Southern Hemisphere (using beam 3). These beams point toward the Earth with different angles, but they were considered because they offer the largest spatial coverage of each polar region. Microwave brightness temperatures are expressed in Kelvin (K). Blue colors represent low TBs, whereas red colors represent high TBs. The date shown on the images (below) is the first day of that weekly measurement.

Over the polar region there is a large range of TBs. Where the ocean is not covered by sea ice, TBs are low (about 100 K). In contrast, where the ocean is covered by sea ice higher TBs are measured (about 170 to 270 K). The temporal and spatial distribution of the TBs over sea ice depends on the sea ice properties (e.g., concentration, thickness). Measurements over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets also vary according to the snow and ice properties (e.g. temperature, accumulation, presence of melting snow) but they are more stable than over sea ice, which drifts with the oceanic currents.

Scientists studying the Earth's cryosphere (e.g., ice sheet, sea ice, and permafrost) are motivated to use the Aquarius TB measurements because they contain new information about snow and ice properties. Over the ice sheets, Aquarius' measurements can provide us with information from hundreds of meters below the surface, hence centuries old ice in some places. Understanding these data could lead to new cryospheric applications such as the monitoring of long-term ice temperature changes, and snow accumulation over the ice sheets. Similar new applications exist for sea ice, and permafrost.

The data presented are a weekly gridded average of the swath data distributed by NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and provided by Ludovic Brucker (1,2) and Emmanuel Dinnat (1,3).

Aquarius Level-3 weekly polar-gridded data sets can be downloaded from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

(1) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Cryospheric Sciences Lab, Greenbelt MD, USA
(2) Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt MD, USA
(3) Chapman University, Orange CA, USA

Aquarius Retrieved Brightness Temperature in the Northern High-Latitude Ocean

In the Northern Hemisphere, the sea-ice cover typically reaches a maximum extent in March, and a minimum extent in September. Beginning in June and extending through the months of July, August, and September, there are large areas of the central Arctic that have ice-free waters (blue color on the map). In October, there is an increase in the extent of the sea-ice cover, and this increase continues until the following March (red color replacing blue and green colors on the map).


Maps By Year:  2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 27, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 20, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 13, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
December 6, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 29, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 22, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 15, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 8, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
November 1, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 25, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 18, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 11, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
October 4, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 27, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 20, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 13, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
September 6, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 23, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 16, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 9, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
August 2, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
July 5, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 28, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 21, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 14, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
June 7, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 31, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 24, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 17, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 10, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
May 3, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
April 5, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 29, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 22, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 15, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 8, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
March 1, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 23, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 16, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 9, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
February 2, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the northern hemisphere
January 5, 2012

Aquarius Retrieved Brightness Temperature in the Southern High-Latitude Ocean

  • Brightness temperature, January 5-12, 2012

    January 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 12-19, 2012

    January 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 19-26, 2012

    January 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, January 26 - February 2, 2012

    January 26 - February 2, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 2-9, 2012

    February 2-9, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 9-16, 2012

    February 9-16, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 16-23, 2012

    February 16-23, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, February 23 - March 1, 2012

    February 23 - March 1, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 1-8, 2012

    March 1-8, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 8-15, 2012

    March 8-15, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 15-22, 2012

    March 15-22, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 22-29, 2012

    March 22-29, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, March 29 - April 5, 2012

    March 29 - April 5, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 5-12, 2012

    April 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 12-19, 2012

    April 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 19-26, 2012

    April 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, April 26 - May 3, 2012

    April 26 - May 3, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 3-10, 2012

    May 3-10, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 10-17, 2012

    May 10-17, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 17-24, 2012

    May 17-24, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 24-31, 2012

    May 24-31, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, May 31 - June 7, 2012

    May 31 - June 7, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 7-14, 2012

    June 7-14, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 14-21, 2012

    June 14-21, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 21-28, 2012

    June 21-28, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, June 28 - July 5, 2012

    June 28 - July 5, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 5-12, 2012

    July 5-12, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 12-19, 2012

    July 12-19, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 19-26, 2012

    July 19-26, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, July 26 - August 2, 2012

    July 26 - August 2, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 2-9, 2012

    August 2-9, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 9-16, 2012

    August 9-16, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 16-23, 2012

    August 16-23, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, August 23 - September 6, 2012

    August 23 - September 6, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 6-13, 2012

    September 6-13, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 13-20, 2012

    September 13-20, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 20-27, 2012

    September 20-27, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, September 27 - October 4, 2012

    September 27 - October 4, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 4-11, 2012

    October 4-11, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 11-18, 2012

    October 11-18, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 18-25, 2012

    October 18-25, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, October 25 - November 1, 2012

    October 25 - November 1, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 1-8, 2012

    November 1-8, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 8-15, 2012

    November 8-15, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 15-22, 2012

    November 15-22, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 22-29, 2012

    November 22-29, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, November 29 - December 6, 2012

    November 29 - December 6, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 6-13, 2012

    December 6-13, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 13-20, 2012

    December 13-20, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 20-27, 2012

    December 20-27, 2012

  • Brightness temperature, December 27, 2012 - January 3, 2013

    December 27, 2012 - January 3, 2013

  • Credit
  • Credit
Slideshow: 2012 brightness temperature maps of the Southern Hemisphere ocean (hover over images to pause the slideshow).

In the Southern Hemisphere, the month of minimum sea ice extent is February, whereas the month of maximum extent is October. In general, the Antarctic sea-ice cover exhibits faster seasonal ice extent variations than that monitored in the Northern Hemisphere.


Maps By Year:  2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 27, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 20, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 13, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
December 6, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 29, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 22, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 15, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 8, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
November 1, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 25, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 18, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 11, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
October 4, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 27, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 20, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 13, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
September 6, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 23, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 16, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 9, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
August 2, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
July 5, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 28, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 21, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 14, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
June 7, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 31, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 24, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 17, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 10, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
May 3, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
April 5, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 29, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 22, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 15, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 8, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
March 1, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 23, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 16, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 9, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
February 2, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 26, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 19, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 12, 2012
Brightness temperature in the southern hemisphere
January 5, 2012
Publications
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., and Koenig, L.S. (2014a). Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations and Salinity Retrievals Over the Polar Regions - Part 1: Product Description, The Cryosphere, 8, 905-913, doi:10.5194/tc-8-905-2014.
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., and Koenig, L.S. (2014b). Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations and Salinity Retrievals Over the Polar Regions - Part 2: Initial Product Analysis, The Cryosphere, 8, 915-930, doi:10.5194/tc-8-915-2014.
Brucker, L., Dinnat, E.P., Picard, G., and Champollion, N. (2014c). Effect of Snow Surface Metamorphism on Aquarius L-Band Radiometer Observations at Dome C, Antarctica, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52 (11), 1-10, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2014.2312102.